Surface brightness vs. stellar mass in the NEWHORIZON simulation for 3 redshifts. The grey points indicate the entire galaxy population of NEWHORIZON in all 3 panels with the median lines for the redshift in question and z = 0.25 shown in blue and orange, respectively. In the bottom panel the open blue points indicate galaxies from Sedgwick et al. (2019a) and black points are NEWHORIZON galaxies. The predicted surface brightness vs. stellar mass plane in NEWHORIZON corresponds well to that where the Sedgwick et al. galaxies are complete. The red dotted lines in the bottom panel indicate the 70% and 10% completeness limits from the SDSS (see e.g., Table 1 in Blanton et al. 2005). The overwhelming majority of galaxies in the Universe lie below the surface brightness thresholds of surveys such as the SDSS; only those galaxies that depart strongly from the typical surface brightness vs. stellar mass relation are likely to be detectable in these datasets.
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