Constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r0.002 in the ΛCDM model, using Planck TT,TE,EE+lowE and Planck TT,TE,EE+lowE+lensing (red and green, respectively), and joint constraints with BAO and BICEP2/Keck (blue, including Planck polarization to determine the foreground components, Ade et al. 2018). This assumes the inflationary consistency relation and negligible running. Dashed grey contours show the joint constraint when using CamSpec instead of Plik as the high-ℓ Planck likelihood, indicating the level of modelling uncertainty in the polarization results. Dotted lines show the loci of approximately constant e-folding number N, assuming simple V ∝ (ϕ/mPl)p single-field inflation. Solid lines show the approximate ns–r relation for locally quadratic and linear potentials to first order in slow roll; red lines show the approximate allowed range assuming 50 < N < 60 and a power-law potential for the duration of inflation. The solid black line (corresponding to a linear potential) separates concave and convex potentials.
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