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Fig. 1

image

Material and optical properties of cloud particles in an atmosphere representative of a warm gas giant, Teff = 1800 K, log (g) = 3.0, for a cloud particle micro-porosity fpor = 0.0, 0.5, 0.9 (the bottom right panel shows only fpor = 0.0, 0.9 for clarity). Top left: nucleation rates for individual species Ji [ s−1] i = TiO2[s] (blue), SiO[s] (brown), and the total J* = ΣiJi (red). Top right: number density nd [cm−3] of cloud particles. Middle left: mean cloud particle size ⟨ a ⟩ [μm]. Middle right: mean drift velocity ⟨ vdr ⟩ [cm s−1] for cloud particles of size ⟨ a ⟩. Bottom left: ratio of the cloud particle mass density and gas mass density (ρdρ) scaled by a factor of 10−3. Bottom right: single-scattering albedo as defined in Eq. (6) for wavelengths λ = 0.1, 0.25, 0.64, 1.63, 4.13, 10.48, 26.56, 67.34, 170.74, and 432.88 μm (colours as shown in the legend).

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