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Fig. 8

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Panel A: average collisional probability with each HR 8799 planet for 7 different particle diameters originating in the inner belt. Each colour corresponds to a different planet, where the dashed lines are assuming no particle-particle collisions, while solid lines are including collisions (see the main text for details). The units are particle impacts onto the entire planet surface per year. Panel B: same as panel A but now for the outer belt particles and 6 different particle diameters. In order to show the difference between scenarios with and without particle-particle collisions, we added a constant value of P = 10−30 to all data points in Panel B. Except for D = 30 μm impacts ontoplanet HR 8799 b all particles with D ≥ 30 μm have P ≪ 10−30 when particle-particle collisions are included.

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