Evolution of the H II volume filling factor (top) and the ionizing photon density (bottom) as a function of redshift. The plotted contributions are those of AGN disks (Matsuoka et al. 2018, corrected for absorption), star-forming galaxies (Robertson et al. 2015), and AGN jets (constant obscuration, CO, and differential obscuration, DO), for ϵ = 1 (maximum possible contributions). The blue lines are the contributions of AGN disks assuming an average fesc = 0.74 as in Grazian et al. (2018), for both the CO (bottom blue line) and DO (top blue line) normalizations. The shaded area represents the estimation of the redshift of instantaneous reionization (1σ confidence interval, Planck Collaboration VI 2018). The solid black line (bottom) represents the critical photon density necessary to keep the IGM ionized.
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