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Fig. 7


Estimated noise standard deviations compared to the σ values given by the Oppermann catalog and for the subset analyzed by Vernstrom et al. (2019). To counteract the visual impression which is dominated by the outliers, we overlaid contour lines from the underlying log probability density function estimated via Gaussian kernels. Equality between the two quantities is indicated by the red dashed line. The red crosses indicate the data points identified by Ma et al. (2019) as nπ-ambigious.

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