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Fig. 4


Upper panel: map of the residual CCF series as a function of orbital phase (in abscissa) and RV in the stellar rest frame (in ordinate). Colors indicate flux values. The four vertical dashed black lines show the times of transit contacts. The in-transit residual CCFs correspond to the average stellar line profiles from the regions that are occulted by HD 3167 c across the stellar disk. The solid black line is the best-fit model to the local RVs of the planet-occulted regions (λ = −112.5°), assuming solid-body rotation for the star (v sin i = 1.89 km s−1). Lower panel: RVs of the stellar surface regions occulted by the planet (blue points), best fit with thesolid black line (same as in the upper panel). The gray area corresponds to the 1 σ envelope of the best fit, derived from the MCMC posterior distributions. The dashed red line shows a model obtained with the same stellar rotational velocity, but an aligned orbit (λ = 0°). This highlights the large orbital misalignment of HD 3167 c.

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