Fig. 8


Close-up of injected test particle behavior in Run 2. The continuous red line shows the extent of the Mms =2 surface. The background color shows a mapping from a test particle created at that location to the energy of the particle at its closest approach to the nucleus. This approximates the energy of the particle as if it were collected by the virtual detector, given that the particle hit the detector. The color scale is centered on the knee energy. The black line segments denote particles with a minimum distance to the nucleus in the range 100–150 km. Traces within the black outlines have a minimum distance to the nucleus smaller than 100 km, and these particles would be collected by the virtual detector (i.e. particles are ionized within the sampling region), and traces outside of the black outlines have a minimum distance to the origin larger than 200 km. The arrows show the direction and magnitude of the local convective electric field; white corresponds to the undisturbed solar wind electric field.

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