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Fig. 2


Force ratio FPhFD under the assumption that I = L∕(4πr2). The solid lines correspond to the force ratio calculated from the normal model (fd = 10−1 and α = 10−3), and the dashed lines are the dust-poor model (fd = 10−6 and α = 10−2). The vertical lines represent the location of the light barrier. The line colors represent the mass accretion rate ( = 10−7MJ yr−1 for blue, = 10−8MJ yr−1 for pink, and = 10−9MJ yr−1 for green). As a reference, the current orbit of Io is r = 5.9 RJ.

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