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Fig. 1.


Example helioseismology maps of the surface horizontal flow and line-of-sight magnetograms for a single emerging active region (AR11072; left) at 13.6 h before emergence and the corresponding quiet-Sun region (right). The emergence location is shown by the white circle at the origin in the left panel. The maps show the horizontal divergence (colors; blue for converging flows and red for diverging flows), the horizontal flows estimated from the calibrated travel times (black arrows), and the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field (light and dark gray for the two polarities; only line-of-sight field stronger than 10 G is shown). The x and y components of the flows each have an rms of about 60 m s−1. The dominant features in both maps are the diverging horizontal flows associated with supergranules. This example shows no clear precursor flows before the emergence time. The scale arrow in the lower left corner of the first panel shows a flow of 150 m s−1. Flows weaker than 75 m s−1 are not shown in these maps. The x -coordinate increases westward (prograde direction) and y increases northward.

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