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Table 3

The ISM oxygen budget redistribution in dense clouds, out of a total abundance of (490:575) (Asplund et al. 2009; Przybilla et al. 2008), where these values are used to determine the requisite (lower : upper) O and (upper : lower) C depletions into a-C:H and carbonate dust phases.

Phase (ppm) (ppm) (ppm)
a-Sil(s) 110
CO(g) 50 50
H2O(s)-ice 160
a-C, a-C(:H)[:O:N](s) (30:27) (293:264) 30
Organic carbonate(s) ≥(140:228) ≳(47:76)
(O:C = 3:1)

Total ≥(490:575) ≳390 30

Notes. Column 3 shows the equivalent carbon abundances out of a budget of 390 ppm (Jenkins 2009; Parvathi et al. 2012). Column 4 indicates a possible nitrogen depletion into dust. The gas phase CO and ice phase O depletions are taken from Whittet (2010). a-C(:H)[:O:N] represents an a-C:H solid phase with ≃ 10 at.% O and N heteroatoms present in carbonyl (C =O), aldehyde (−C), ketone (>C =O), amide (−C), imine (>C =N) and nitrile (−C ≡N) functional groups, as per the GEMS-containing IDPs analysed by Ishii et al. (2018).

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