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Fig. 9


WASP-18b dayside ionosphere as a result of a partially ionised gas in the atmosphere (ϕ = − 90°, −45°, 0°, 45°, and 90°): the degree of thermal ionisation from the day- to the nightside at the equator (left) and in the northern hemisphere (right) of WASP-18b. The ionosphere is stronger in the equatorial regions (θ = 0°) than in the northern hemisphere (θ = 45°).

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