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Fig. 5

image

Combined view of the cloud structure of the profiles probing each of the day- to nightside terminators of WASP-18b (top: 45° north, bottom: equator; left: west, and right: east seen from the dayside). Following earlier works (e.g. Fig. 9 in Helling & Casewell 2014), we summarise the fundamental cloud properties for each of the limb profiles to demonstrate the differences in cloud details and their causes. For each profile the plots show the following properties as a function of the local gas pressure pgas [bar]. First panel: local gas temperature, Tgas [K] (solid, left) and mixing timescale τmix [s] (dashed, right). Second panel: total nucleation rate, J* [cm−3 s−1 ] (red), and the individual rates for TiO2 (blue), SiO (brown dashed), and carbon (green dashed); number density of cloud particle, nd [cm−3]. Third panel: effective growth velocity, χ [10−7 cm s−1]. Fourth panel: material volume fraction, VsVtot, with Vs the volume of the material s, and Vtot the volume of all cloud particles. Fifth panel: effective supersaturation ratio, Seff, per material. Sixth panel: mean cloud particle size, ⟨a⟩ [μm] (solid, left), and drift velocity vdrift [cm s−1 ]. The materials are line- and colour-coded as follows: TiO2[s] – solid dark blue line, Al2O3[s] – dotted light blue line, C[s] – dashed green line, SiO[s] – dashed brown line, SiO2 [s] – dash-dotted brown, CaTiO3[s] – dashed purple line, CaSiO3[s] – dotted purple line, Fe[s] – dash-dotted green line, FeO[s] – dashed green line, FeS[s] – dotted green line, Fe2 O3[s] i– long-dash-dotted green line, Fe2SiO3[s] – solid green line, MgO[s] – dash-dotted dark orange line, MgSiO3[s] – dotted orange line, Mg2SiO4[s] – dashed orange line. Superrotation prohibits cloud formation on the east equatorial terminator (ϕ = 90°, θ = 0°; lower left panels).

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