Seed formation rate, J* [cm−3 s−1 ], that triggers the cloud formation (left axis) and the resulting cloud particle number densities, nd [cm−3 ], (right axis, thick dashed line). The total seed formation rate (solid red line) is the sum of the nucleation rate for TiO2 (solid blue), SiO (dashed brown), and C (dashed grey). Only TiO2 and SiO form condensation seeds, carbon does not condense in the oxygen-rich environment of WASP-18b. No seed formation occurs on the dayside, therefore no clouds can form, except in the mid-latitudes near the east day- to nightside terminator.
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