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Fig. 2


Top panel: Hα time-series data of CARMENES (blue) and HARPS-N (red) spectra of seasons S4, S5, and S6. Middle panel: data points phase folded to 56.44 d. Bottom panel: periodogram of the CARMENES index as in Fig. A.3. We mark the periods at 18.86 (orange vertical line) and 13.85 d (red vertical line), their yearly aliases at frequencies ν = P−1 ± 365.25−1 d−1 (black vertical dashed lines), and the frequencies at 18.86−1 ± 56.44−1 d−1 (green vertical lines), where the symmetry of the index data strongly imprints. The 0.1, 1, and 10% FAP levels are shown by the blue horizontal dashed lines (from top to bottom).

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