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Fig. 1

image

RV time series (top panels), GLS periodograms (middle panels), and window functions (bottom panels) of the HIRES (left column), HARPS-N (middle column) and CARMENES (right column) RV data. The different observational seasons are labeled from S0 to S6, and the unusual season S1 is colored in blue. In the periodograms, we mark the periods at 9.37 and 18.86 d with orange vertical lines, the period at 13.85 d with a red vertical line, and the 0.1, 1, and 10% analytical FAP levels by red horizontal dashed lines. The blue vertical dashed line for the HIRES data shows the Nyquist frequency at (159 d)−1 = 0.00629 d−1.

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