Diagram of Nemesis method. (A) A particle is an individual object or a subsystem consisting of multiple individual objects. In this study, the individual objects are either stars or planets. (B) The gravitational force on a particle is the sum of the force from other particles  and the forces from the individual objects in the subsystems.(C) The gravitational force on individual objects is the sum of the force from the particles  and the forces from the other individual objects in the containing subsystem , but not from those individual objects in other subsystems . The forces from A.1 and B.2 are each in a self-contained system and can be calculated in an N-body code; the forces in A.2 and B.2 are connected to the self-contained systems and are evolved with a leapfrog algorithm.
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