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Fig. 3.


Evolution of phase-space spiral in z − νz plane for a solar neighborhood-like region in the disk, at R = 8 kpc. At all times (except the first frame) the bar is rotated by 30° relative to the direction on the galactic center. Top row: stellar density distribution log(ρ(z, νz)/max(ρ(z, νz))), middle row: mean radial velocity, and bottom row: mean residual azimuthal velocity νφ(z, νz)−⟨νφ(z, νz)⟩.

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