Illustration of the mass-luminosity plane with a typical evolutionary track entering the ZAMS at the red dot, evolving along the black arrow. The dotted vector suggests how increased rotation and/or convective overshooting may extend the M−L vector. The curved dashed line represents the gradient at which mass-loss rates affect this M−L vector. The red solid region represents the boundary set by the mass-luminosity relationship, and as such is forbidden.
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