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Table 1.

Parameters of flow models.

Name θn θs α rt rb rc
(m s−1) (R) (R) (R)
MC1 14.2 180° 1 1 0.70 0.80
MC2 14.2 180° 1 1 0.70 0.77
MC3 14.2 180° 1 1 0.70 0.92
0.80

LC1 7.1 33° 113° 2 1 0.81 0.92
67° 147°

LC2 12.0 33° 113° 2 1 0.94 0.97
67° 147°

LC3 6.5 33° 113° 2 1 0.72 0.85
67° 147°

Notes. The MC models consist of a global cellular flow covering all latitudes, while the LC models consist of two local cellular flows located around the activity belts in the northern and southern hemispheres symmetrically. The refers to the maximal uθ at the surface, and the α determines where the uθ peaks in latitude (see Eq. (7)). The parameters rt, rb, θn, θs refer to the top, bottom, northern and southern boundaries of the cellular flow, respectively. The characteristic depth rc is the layer where the poleward flow transitions to the equatorward flow or vice versa.

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