Three measured travel-time shifts (from left to right), δτ′sn;23, δτ′sn;24, and δτ′sn;23+24, averaged over four distance ranges and antisymmetrized about the equator, as a function of latitude (curves with error bars). Each row corresponds to a distance range indicated in the first column; shortest at the top and largest at the bottom. The data values are binned every 7.2° in latitude. The error bars give the standard deviation of the mean in each binning interval. For comparison, we overplot the selected forward-modeled travel-time shifts (see the legend on the right) averaged over the same distance ranges as for δτ′sns. As mentioned in Sect. 4.1, the parameters of the flow models were chosen such that the forward-modeled travel-time shifts are comparable to the measured δτ′sns in the top row.
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