Free Access

Table 3

Summary of molecules (other than H2 and CO) observed in disks and abundances derived.

Species Spectral signature, region probed Detection rate, abundance, and references
T Tauri Herbig Ae/Be
H2 O IR emission, inner atmosphere many disks (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11) one disk: HD 163296 (4,7,11,12,13,14,15)
(0.4 − 800) × 1018 cm−2 (6,7) 1014 − 1015 cm−2 (14)
sub-mm emission, outer disk two disks: TW Hya, DG Tau (16,17,18) one disk: HD 100546 (18,19)
~10−7 relative to H2 (16)

OH IR emission, inner atmosphere many disks (2,3,4,6,7,8,11,15,20) a dozen of disks (4,7,11,12,21)
(0.4 − 200) × 1015 cm−2 (6,7) (0.01 − 200) × 1015 cm−2 (12,15,21)

C2 H2 IR emission/absorption, inner disk many disks (2,6,7,8,22,23,24) none
(0.5 − 70) × 1015 cm−2 (6,7,22,23,24)

HCN IR emission/absorption, inner disk many disks (2,6,7,8,22,23,24) none
(0.5 − 65) × 1015 cm−2 (6,7,22,23,24)
mm emission, outer disk many disks (27,28,29,30,31,32,33,35) many disks (28,29,30,31,32,33,34)
(0.2 − 10.6) × 1012 cm−2 (28,31,32,33) (0.1 − 1) × 1012 cm−2 (31,33,34)

HNC mm emission, outer disk two disks: DM Tau, TW Hya (27,36) one disk: HD 163296 (36)
HNC/HCN = 0.3-0.4 (27) HNC/HCN = 0.1 − 0.2

CH4 IR absorption, inner disk one disk: GV Tau (25) none
2.8 × 1017 cm−2 (25)

CO2 IR emission/absorption, inner disk many disks (6,7,22,24,26) one disk: HD 101412 (7)
(0.04 − 10) × 1016 cm−2 (7,22,24,26) 1016 cm−2 (7)

C2 H mm emission, outer disk many disks (27,32,33,37,38) two disks: AB Aur, MWC 480 (33,34,37,39,40)
(0.4 − 8.5) × 1013 cm−2 (0.6 − 1) × 1013 cm−2 (33)

CN mm emission, outer disk many disks (27,28,29,30,31,32,33) a handful of disks (28,29,30,31,33,34)
(0.7 − 11.5) × 1013 cm−2 (28,31,32,33) (0.1 − 1.5) × 1013 cm−2 (28,31,33,34)

H2 CO mm emission, outer disk a dozen of disks (27,28,29,30,33,41,43,44) a handful of disks (30,33,34,42,45,46)
(0.9 − 4.4) × 1012 cm−2 (1.6 − 3.3) × 1012 cm−2

CH3 OH mm emission (ALMA), outer disk one disk: TW Hya; (3 − 6) × 1012 cm−2 (47) none

HC3 N mm emission, outer disk two disks: GO Tau, LkCa 15; ~1012 cm−2 (48) one disk: MWC 480; ~1012 cm−2 (48,49)

CH3 CN mm emission (ALMA), outer disk none one disk: MWC 480; ~1013 cm−2 (49)

c-C3 H2 mm emission (ALMA), outer disk one disk: TW Hya (38) one disk: HD 163296; 1012 − 1013 cm−2 (50)

NH3 sub-mm emission, outer disk one disk: TW Hya (51) none
(0.2 − 17) × 10−11 relative to H2 (51)

CS mm emission, outer disk a dozen of disks (27,32,33,52) two disks: AB Aur, MWC 480 (33,34,40)
(1 − 20.9) × 1012 cm−2 (32,33,52) (0.4 − 6.3) × 1012 cm−2 (33,34)

SO mm emission, outer disk two disks: CI Tau, GM Aur (33) one disk: AB Aur (33,34,40,42)
(7.4 − 9) × 1012 cm−2 (33) (0.5 − 10) × 1012 cm−2 (33,34,42)

HCO+ mm emission, outer disk many disks (28,29,30,33,35,53,54,55) many disks (28,29,30,33,34,54,56)
(0.3 − 20) × 1012 cm−2 (28,33,53,54,55) (0.2 − 5) × 1012 cm−2

N2 H+ mm emission, outer disk a handful of disks (29,30,44,53,54,57) one disk: HD 163296 (45)
(0.1 − 30) × 1012 cm−2 1.7 × 1011 cm−2 (45)

CH+ sub-mm emission, mid disk none two disks: HD 100546, HD 97048 (15,58)
4.3 × 1012 cm−2

Notes. (a) Values are line intensity ratios rather than abundance ratios. (b)Out of this range, Kastner et al. (2014) derive N(C2H) = 5.1 × 1015 cm−2 in TW Hya. (c) Out of this range, Aikawa et al. (2003) derive N(H2CO) = (7.2 − 19) × 1012 cm−2 in LkCa 15. (d) Carney et al. (2017) derive a H2CO abundance of (2 − 5) × 10−12 relative to H2 in HD 163296. (e) Out of this range, Mathews et al. (2013) derive N(HCO+) = 1.5 × 1014 cm−2 in HD 163296. (f) Out of this range, Qi et al. (2013c) derive N(N2H+) = 1014 − 1015 cm−2 in TW Hya. (g)In the same object, HD 100546, Fedele et al. (2013) derive N(CH+) = 1016 –1017 cm−2 for an emitting area inner to 50–70 au.

References. (1) Carr et al. (2004); (2) Carr & Najita (2008); (3) Salyk et al. (2008); (4) Pontoppidan et al. (2010a); (5) Pontoppidan et al. (2010b); (6) Carr & Najita (2011); (7) Salyk et al. (2011); (8) Mandell et al. (2012); (9) Riviere-Marichalar et al. (2012); (10) Sargent et al. (2014); (11) Banzatti et al. (2017); (12) Fedele et al. (2011); (13) Meeus et al. (2012); (14) Fedele et al. (2012); (15) Fedele et al. (2013); (16) Hogerheijde et al. (2011); (17) Podio et al. (2013); (18) Du et al. (2017); (19) van Dishoeck et al. (2014); (20) Carr & Najita (2014); (21) Mandell et al. (2008); (22) Lahuis et al. (2006); (23) Gibb et al. (2007); (24) Bast et al. (2013); (25) Gibb & Horne (2013); (26) Kruger et al. (2011); (27) Dutrey et al. (1997); (28) Thi et al. (2004); (29) Öberg et al. (2010); (30) Öberg et al. (2011); (31) Chapillon et al. (2012a); (32) Kastner et al. (2014); (33) Guilloteau et al. (2016); (34) Fuente et al. (2010); (35) Fuente et al. (2012); (36) Graninger et al. (2015); (37) Henning et al. (2010); (38) Bergin et al. (2016); (39) Schreyer et al. (2008); (40) Pacheco-Vázquez et al. (2015); (41) Aikawa et al. (2003); (42) Pacheco-Vázquez et al. (2016); (43) Loomis et al. (2015); (44) Öberg et al. (2017); (45) Qi et al. (2013a); (46) Carney et al. (2017); (47) Walsh et al. (2016); (48) Chapillon et al. (2012b); (49) Öberg et al. (2015); (50) Qi et al. (2013b); (51) Salinas et al. (2016); (52) Dutrey et al. (2011); (53) Qi et al. (2003); (54) Dutrey et al. (2007); (55) Teague et al. (2015); (56) Mathews et al. (2013); (57) Qi et al. (2013c); (58) Thi et al. (2011).

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.