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Table 2

Icespecies, binding energies, and photodesorption yields.

Species ED (K) Ref. Y (molecule photon−1) Ref.
CH4 1000 (1) 10−3 (11)
C2 H2 2587 (2) 10−3 (11)
C2 H4 3487 (2) 10−3 (11)
C2 H6 4387 (2) 10−3 (11)
H2 O 5773 (3) (1.3 + 0.032 Td) × 10−3 (12) *
O2 1161 (4)†  (2.8a, 2.3b, 2.4c) × 10−3 (13)§
CO 1575 (5) †  (9.5a, 4.8b, 10.3c) × 10−3 (14) §
CO2 2346 (4)†  (8.2a, 2.0b, 0.98c) × 10−4 (15) §*
H2 CO 3260 (6) 10−3 (11)
CH3 OH 4990 (7) (1.5a, 1.1b, 1.3c) × 10−4 (16)§*
HCOOH 5570 (2) 10−3 (11)
NH3 3830 (1) 10−3 (11)
N2 1435 (5)†  (2.0a, 1.6b, 0.89c) × 10−3 (13)§
HCN 2050 (2) 10−3 (11)
H2 S 1945 (8) 10−3 (11)
CS 1900 (2) 10−3 (11)
H2 CS 2700 (2) 10−3 (11)
SO 2600 (2) 10−3 (11)
SO2 3900 (9) 10−3 (11)
OCS 3440 (10) 10−3 (11)

Notes. Pure ice; amorphous water ice substrate (submonolayer regime); solid SO2 substrate; estimated for water ice substrate; § wavelength-dependent photodesorption yield is convolved over the 7–13.6 eV range with the interstellar(a), T Tauri(b), and Herbig Ae/Be(c) FUV radiation fields described in Sect. 2.1.1; *yields of direct photodesorption and fragmentation have been measured. References. (1) Luna et al. (2014); (2) Garrod & Herbst (2006); (3) Fraser et al. (2001); (4) Noble et al. (2012a); (5) Fayolle et al. (2016); (6) Noble et al. (2012b); (7) Doronin et al. (2015); (8) Sandford & Allamandola (1993); (9) Schriver-Mazzuoli et al. (2003), assuming that ED is directly proportional to the desorption temperature (see, e.g., Martín-Doménech et al. 2014); (10) Burke & Brown (2010); (11) assumed; (12) pure H2 O ice (> 8 ML) in the 18–100 K range; the fraction of H2O molecules photodesorbed is (0.42 + 0.002 Td), the remaining results in fragmentation into OH + H (Öberg et al. 2009); (13) pure O2 (30 ML) and 15 N2 (60 ML) ices at 15 K (Fayolle et al. 2013); (14) pure CO ice (10 ML) at 18 K (Fayolle et al. 2011); (15) pure 13 CO2 (10 ML) ice at 10 K; the fraction of CO2 molecules desorbed is 0.37, 0.42, and 0.22 under the interstellar, T Tauri, and Herbig Ae/Be FUV fields, respectively, the remaining results in fragmentation into CO + O (Fillion et al. 2014); (16) pure CH3 OH (20 ML) ice at 10 K; the fraction of CH3 OH molecules desorbed is 0.08, while the fragmentation channels CH3 + OH, H2CO + H2, CO + H2 + H2 occur with fractions of 0.05, 0.07, and 0.80, almost independently of the radiation field (Bertin et al. 2016; see also Cruz-Diaz et al. 2016).

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