Panel a: temporal evolution of the total solar irradiance (TSI, W m−2) calculated with CHRONOS using solar modulation potentials from SSR11 (orange line), PHI-MC17 (red line), PHI-US16 (light blue line), and PHI-MU16 (violet line) in comparison with the SATIRE-T (green line) and NRLSSI2 (blue line) model outputs. Panel b: deviation of TSI (W m−2) from the minimal values for the same models. The shading around blue and violet lines represents the uncertainty range in the solar modulation potential reconstructions.
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