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Fig. 6

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Maximum nightside thickness of various types of ice (N2, CO, O2, CH4 and CO2) – assumingthat it is limited by basal melting – as a function of the geothermal heat flux. It is assumed here that the entire atmosphere has collapsed at the cold points of the planet and that the surface temperature at the top of the glacier is controlled by the geothermal heat flux. As a reference, vertical dashed lines indicate the average surface tidal heat flux on TRAPPIST-1 planets derived from Table 2, for a tidal dissipation equal to that of the Earth. We also added (vertical solid gray line) the average geothermal heat flux on Earth, to give the reader a rough sense of the amplitude of the radiogenic heating on TRAPPIST-1 planets. These quantities can be numerically converted in term of global equivalent surface pressure when multiplied by a factor . The thermodynamical and rheological properties of the ices were taken from https://encyclopedia.airliquide.com; http://webbook.nist.gov; Roder (1978); Schmitt et al. (1997); Fray & Schmitt (2009); Trowbridge et al. (2016), and Umurhan et al. (2017). Missing rheological data were mimicked on N2.

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