Top row: proton time profiles at five heliospheric locations. Bottom row: corresponding virtual time profiles generated through SEP transport simulations. The locations are ordered according to connected footpoint longitude: STB, MSL, Earth, MES, and STA. MES and STA observations are also marked with the onsets of ESP-related proton effects with grey lines. For STA, the first grey line designates the estimated onset of foreshock ESP flux.
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