Effect on the transmission spectrum of non-distributivity of convolution and binning with respect to division. In blue are shown models that are convolved and averaged in flux before division, which thus represent more closely the observed transmission spectrum; in red are shown models obtained by downgrading directly the planetary absorption, as usually done in the literature and throughout the rest of this paper. The black dots with error bars are the observed data. We also show the comparison of the residuals between data and the more accurate, blue model and the residuals between the models. Panel a: in the case of HARPS data (binned 9x in the picture, but full resolution was used in the comparison), the difference in shape between the two models is visible by eye. However, the difference between the two models is still lower than the residuals between data and model (see lower panel). Panel b: in the case ofWFC3, the sharp short period variations (single molecular lines) are averaged out, while the longer period variations (molecular bands) are well sampled even at low-resolution. As a result, the difference between the models is also negligible.
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