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Fig. 1


Evolution with time of the pericenter longitude ϖ of the inner more massive planet as a function of time in three different models, all with a gap in the disk. The blue line shows the evolution of ϖ in a pure three-body problem where the mutual gravitational perturbations of the planets determine the retrograde apsidal longitude circulation of the inner one. The black line illustrates the circulation of the inner planet ϖ affected by the disk potential only (the second planet is not included) which is positive, as expected (Fontana & Marzari 2016). The full model where both the planets and the disk potential are considered is shown by the red line evolving with a positive frequency because of the dominating effect of the disk potential.

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