Critical conditions in Prad–Pgas plane. The hydrostatic envelope solution for a 20 M⊙ He star from Gräfener et al. (2012) is indicated by the black/red curve (the axes in this diagram are inverted so that the stellar interior is located in the lower left and the stellar surface in the upper right). On this curve, κ(Prad,Pgas) ≈ κEdd. Areas in the Prad–Pgas plane with higher/lower opacities are indicated in grey/white and by plusandminus signs. The blue line indicates possible locations of the sonic point for an adopted mass-loss rate of 10-4.8M⊙ yr-1 following Eq. (7). The circle indicates the innermost intersection point with an outward-increasing opacity, giving a precise estimate for the location of the sonic point (see text).
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