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Fig. 1


Space-based observations of the Sun collected by the photometric VIRGO/SPM (top panel, here the GREEN channel) and the radial velocity GOLF (bottom panel) instruments on board the SoHO satellite between 1996 April 11 and 2017 April 11. The missing data shown at zero between the years 1998 and 1999 correspond to the two temporary losses of SoHO. The GOLF red-wing period from mid-1998 to the end of 2002, denoted by the two vertical dashed lines, is represented in red (see Sect. 2).

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