Fraction of clumpy galaxies within the VUDS sample as a function of spectroscopic redshift. Different large colored circles (gold, green, and purple) represent different values of the normalization kp. The smaller gray symbols represent values from the literature for clumpy galaxies: circles (Shibuya et al. 2015); squares (Guo et al. 2015); and for asymmetric galaxies: inverted triangles (Ravindranath et al. 2006); triangles (Conselice & Arnold 2009); octagons (Law et al. 2012); pentagons (Curtis-Lake et al. 2016). For kp = 5, the isophote at z < 4 is very high and as we only probe the brightest regions of galaxies we miss those clumps outside the search isophote, therefore lowering the fraction of clumpy galaxies. The empty purple circle at z ~ 5 is the extrapolation of the clumpy fraction as if it was measured at kp = 1.5 (see Sect. 4.2.2 for details).
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