Timescales involved in thermal relaxation. Values are scaled with local Keplerian frequency Ω. Panel a: the small gas opacity model, panel b: the large gas opacity model. The collision timescales are shown with the short dashed lines (grey for gas-to-gas, black for dust-to-gas); the LTE emission timescales are shown with the dot-dashed lines (grey for gas, black for dust); the resulting timescale of the optically thin relaxation is shown with the long dashed lines. The solid lines show the timescale of radiative diffusion in the vertical direction from the midplane for perturbation wavelengths (top to bottom).
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