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Fig. 3

image

Verification of the maximum-time criterion. The four panels correspond to different perturbation wavelengths, (a); 0.5(b); 0.1(c); and 0.02(d). The cross-hatched pattern identifies regions of the dust collisional decoupling, the dark grey areas – of the gas collisional decoupling (see the legend); the white areas refer to the fastest radiative relaxation via thermal emission; optically thick relaxation is marked with light grey, and the grey additionally highlights the dynamically slow relaxation (Ωt> 1). Rosseland depth τR,1 / 2 = 1 (solid lines) approximates the transition between the optically thin and the optically thick regimes. The absorption of the stellar light is shown for the two gas opacity models: the small gas opacity (dot-dashed) with single-temperature Planck means from Freedman et al. (2008) and the large gas opacity (dotted) with two-temperature Planck means from Malygin et al. (2014).

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