Stacks of Mould R-band images from the P48 telescope. Panel a) Stacked reference image of the iPTF13z host galaxy. Panel b) The 332 earliest frames (from − 1417 to − 242 days) stacked, giving signal-to-noise ratio S/N = 1 at the site of the SN. Panel c) Stack of the 54 frames from from − 238 to − 188 days, with S/N = 15, showing the pre-discovery outburst. Panel d) All 456 post-discovery frames (from 0 to 870 days) stacked, with S/N = 60, showing the SN. The scale of the axes is in pixels (1.01″ / pixel). The field of view is 41 × 41 pixels, with north down and east to the right. The aperture for the SN location is shown as a box with whole sides. Apertures for the background are shown as dashed boxes. These boxes were used to estimate the signal and the noise in the stacks, to calculate the S/N. The white cross shows the PSF based position of the outburst candidate. Intensity scales, in units of counts, are given below each subplot.
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