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Fig. 1


Energy flux at the top of the atmosphere of a 0.5 Earth-mass moon orbiting a 5 Jupiter-mass planet at 1 AU distance from a Sun-like star; tidal heating is calculated with a CTL model. The planetary orbit has 0.1 eccentricity. The stellar radiation, the planetary reflectance, thermal radiation of the planet and tidal heating were considered as energy sources. White contour curve indicates the runaway greenhouse limit considering all energy sources, while the black curves show the tidal heating flux alone. The arrows at the top of the figure indicate the orbital periods of Io (I), Ganymede (G) and Callisto (C). Note that the CTL model is valid only for small orbital eccentricities. Heating contours in the upper half of the panel (above 0.1 along the ordinate) could be off by orders of magnitude in real cases.

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