Maximum greenhouse effect of CO2 dominated atmospheres for planets orbiting different main-sequence stars. The figure shows the stellar insolation required to obtain a temperature of 273.15 K as a function of the CO2 surface pressure. The stellar flux at the top of the atmosphere F∗ is depicted in units of the solar constant S⊙. The minima of the curves correspond to the maximum greenhouse effect and indicate the outer boundaries of the cloud-free habitable zone.
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