Redshift evolution of the growth time as a function of SMBH mass. In each panel, the horizontal dotted line marks the age of the Universe at that redshift. Lines indicate the different values of ϵ: black, red and green lines are for ϵ = 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1, respectively. The main epoch of growth is at 1 <z< 3. At later time, only low-mass SMBHs can be actually growing in mass, while at earlier time only in the model with ϵ = 0.05 the growth time is much lower than the age of the Universe.
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.