PDFs of the cosine of the angle γ between DALE and the spin or minor axes of early-type galaxies (Tempel et al. 2012, classification). The neighbourhood radius ν = 2.0,7.0,24.0,48.0h-1 Mpc. The observed signal with its 95% confidence interval is depicted in black; the selection effect is depicted in red. Excess of low (and deficiency of high) values of observed cosγ compared to the PDF of the selection effect indicates perpendicular alignment of spin or minor axes of early-type galaxies relative to DALE.
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