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Fig. 2


Left: mean modal energy-period dependence plotted in a logarithmic scale, for all intrinsic modes detected with EMD in the signal of interest shown in the right-hand panel of Fig. 1 in blue. Values of the mean energies and periods of modes 1–3 are shown by black circles while modes 4–7 and 9–10 are shown in green. The red circle indicates the mean energy and period of mode 8 shown in the right-hand panel. The yellow circle corresponds to the long-term trend of the signal, shown in the right-hand panel of Fig. 1 in red. Dashed blue and purple lines show the power law dependences EP1−α = const., with the spectral slopes α = 0 and α = 1, respectively. Blue solid lines show the 99% and 1% confidence intervals of the white noise (α ≈ 0), and the corresponding pink noise (α ≈ 1) confidence intervals are shown by the purple solid lines. The black solid line shows the Fourier energy spectrum of the original signal shown in the right-hand panel of Fig. 1 in blue, shifted downwards by an appropriate normalisation for a better visualisation. Right: the detrended average magnetic field strength (black solid line) shown in the right-hand panel of Fig. 1 in blue, and its intrinsic mode 8 (red solid line) detected with EMD.

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