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Table A.1

Ceres’ Hapke parameters and geometric albedo compared to asteroids and cometary nuclei.

Target SSA ξ B 0 h A geo Phase angle coverage Asteroid type

(1)Ceres (this work) 0.14 ± 0.02 −0.11 ± 0.08 (1.6) (0.06) 29° ± 6° 0.094 ± 0.007 7°−132°
(1)Ceres a 0.094−0.11 −0.35 ± 0.05 20° ± 3° 0.085 ± 0.005 30°−90°
(1)Ceres b 0.070 ± 0.002 (− 0.4) (1.6) (0.06) 44° ± 5° 0.087 ± 0.003 6.1°−6.2°
(1)Ceres c 0.11 −0.29 (1.6) (0.06) (44°) 0.094 0.9°−21.4°
(253)Mathilded 0.035 ± 0.006 −0.25 ± 0.04 3.2 ± 1.0 0.074 ± 0.003 19° ± 5° 0.047 ± 0.005 40°−138° C
(4)Vesta e 0.500 0.229 1.7 0.07 17.7° 0.38 ± 0.04 7.7°−80° V
(21)Lutetiaf 0.25 0.22 1.58 0.052 24° 0°−136.4° M
(21)Lutetia g 0.226 ± 0.002 −0.28 ± 0.02 1.79 ± 0.08 0.041 ± 0.003 28° ± 1° 0.194 ± 0.002 0.15°−156° M
(2867)Steinsh 0.66 ± 0.02 −0.30 ± 0.01 0.60 ± 0.05 0.027 ± 0.002 28° ± 1° 0.39 ± 0.02 0.36°−141° E
(951)Gasprai 0.36 ± 0.07 −0.18 ± 0.04 1.63 ± 0.07 0.06 ± 0.01 29° ± 2° 0.22 ± 0.06 2°−51° S
(243)Idaj −0.33 ± 0.01 1.53 ± 0.10 0.02 ± 0.005 18° ± 2° 0.206 ± 0.032 0.6°−109.8° S
Dactyl j −0.33 ± 0.03 (1.53) (0.02) 23° ± 5° 0.198 ± 0.050 19.5°−47.6° S
(433)Erosk 0.33 ± 0.03 −0.25 ± 0.02 1.4 ± 0.1 0.010 ± 0.004 28° ± 3° 0.23 0.3°−110° S
(25143)Itokawal 0.36 ± 0.05 −0.5 ± 0.1 (1.0) (0.022) (20°) 0.53 ± 0.04 27°−87° S
(25143)Itokawa m 0.42 ± 0.02 −0.35 ± 0.01 0.87 ± 0.02 0.01 ± 0.001 26° ± 1° 0.33 0.2°−38.4° S
(5535)Annefrankn 0.41 ± 0.05 −0.19 ± 0.03 (1.32) 0.046 ± 0.013 (20°) 0.232 ± 0.038 2.3°−90° S
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenkoo 0.052 ± 0.013 −0.42 0.062 ± 0.002 1.2°−111.5°
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko p 0.037 ± 0.002 −0.42 ± 0.03 1.95 ± 0.12 0.023 ± 0.004 15° 0.0589 ± 0.0034 1.3°−53.9°
19P/Borrellyq 0.057 ± 0.009 −0.43 ± 0.07 1.0 0.039 22° ± 5° 0.072 ± 0.020 51°−75°
103P/Hartley 2r 0.036 ± 0.006 −0.46 ± 0.06 (1.0) (0.01) 15° ± 10° 0.045 ± 0.009 79°−93°
9P/Tempel1s 0.039 ± 0.005 −0.49 ± 0.02 (1.0) (0.01) 16° ± 8° 0.051 ± 0.009 63°−117° -
81P/Wild 2t 0.038 ± 0.04 −0.52 ± 0.04 (1.0) (0.1) 27° ± 5° 0.059 ± 0.004 11°−100°

Notes.

(a)

Li et al. (2016b), clear filter centered at 730 nm, geometric albedo by Li et al. (2016a).

(c)

Reddy et al. (2015), case 2.

(d)

Clark et al. (1999), at 0.7 μm. NEAR data have been combined with telescopic observations at phase angles from to 16°.

(f)

Raponi (2015), average values in the 1.1–2.4 μm wavelength range. These quantities are derived by applying the Hapke (2012) model, including the effect of porosity with K = 1.18.

(g)

Masoumzadeh et al. (2015), at 631.6 nm and 649.2 nm.

(h)

Spjuth et al. (2012) at 630 nm, Hapke parameters from solution GS1.

(i)

Helfenstein et al. (1994) at 0.56 μm. Values are derived from Earth-based and Galileo mission combined data.

(j)

Helfenstein et al. (1996), at 0.55 μm. For Ida, values are derived from Earth-based and Galileo mission combined data.

(k)

Li et al. (2004), at 0.55 μm. Near data have been combined with telescopic observations at phase angles below 53°.

(l)

Lederer et al. (2005), ground-based observations in the V band, solution 4.

(m)

Kitazato et al. (2008), at 1.57 μm. Geometric albedo was not reported in the original paper and has been computed here from Hapke parameters.

(n)

Hillier et al. (2011), at 630 nm. Stardust data have been combined with telescopic observations at phase angles from 2.3° to 18.3°.

(q)

Li et al. (2007b), R band.

(r)

Li et al. (2013a). DIXI observations have been combined with Gemini and HST data at low phase angles.

(t)

Li et al. (2009), R band.

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