Reflection spectra computed for the synchronous case with an Earth-like atmosphere. Each color corresponds to a phase angle (0° meaning that the observer looks at the substellar point and 90° at a point on the terminator). The thickness of the curve indicates the range of possible values depending on the actual observing geometry (see text and Fig. 9). Straight lines are calculated for a constant surface albedo of 0.4. Curves are plotted in gray when the angular separation falls below twice the diffraction limit of the E-ELT (2 × 1.2λ/D). These plots are obtained with a fixed planetary radius of 1.1 R⊕. Because these plots do not include the contribution from the thermal emission, the contrast at 3.5–4 μm is underestimated by a factor of ~ 2.
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