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Table 1

Model parameters.

Stellar parameters

Parameters AE Aurigae BD+43 3654 Betelgeuse

Wind mass-loss rate [M yr-1] 10-7 10-5 3.2 × 10-7
V w Wind velocity [km s-1] 1500 2300 270
R 0 Standoff radius [pc] 0.082 1.5 0.63
L Luminosity of the star [L] 0.7 × 105 8 × 105 4.8 × 104
T Stellar temperature [kK] 32 39 9
R Stellar radius [R] 8.9 19.4 90
n H Ambient medium density [cm-3] 2.3 5 1.3
V Stellar velocity [km s-1] 150 66 50
d Distance [pc] 550 1450 200
Age Bow shock lifetime [Myr] 2.5 1.6 30

Free parameters in the model

Δ Shock width [R0] 0.3 0.08 0.25
α Electron injection index 2 2.1 2
q rel Fraction of relativistic energy 0.15 0.1 0.1
a Electron-to-proton ratio 1 1 1

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