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Fig. 8


Measurements of Jupiter’s synchrotron spectrum at meter-to-centimeter wavelengths, scaled to the distance of 4.04 AU. The majority of the measurements was obtained with the VLA between 1991 and 2004 (de Pater et al. 1995, 2003; Millan et al. 1998; de Pater & Dunn 2003; de Pater & Butler 2003; Kloosterman et al. 2008), some of which were after the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 in 1994. The blue and red curves were fitted by de Pater et al. (2003) to the series of measurements taken respectively in 1994 and 1998. LOFAR measurements of the present study are the black dots in the HBA range, and their uncertainty is figured by the gray box. Previous measurements below ~300 MHz are unresolved. Decameter emission (DAM – not shown) dominates the spectral range below 40 MHz (see Fig. 1b).

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