Evolution of the UVB, log10(Γ-12), as a function of redshift. These measurements are typically derived by an analysis of the Lyman forest properties or by the proximity effect. The 3σ upper limit from this work (Γ-12 ≤ 0.36) is indicated with a magenta arrow. This limit, obtained by star-forming galaxies with L ≥ 0.5L∗ at z ~ 3.3, shows that the bright galaxies alone cannot be responsible for the UVB at this redshift.
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