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Fig. 2


Evolution of the disk and planet inclination with respect to the initial disk+planet plane in the two runs of VINE and PHANTOM, respectively. The dashed magenta (VINE) and green (PHANTOM) lines show the planet inclination ip, while the continuous black (VINE) and red (PHANTOM) lines illustrate the disk inclination id. After about 6000 yr, the planet evolution departs from that of the disk in both simulations and ip grows at a slower rate compared to id. The light blue line illustrates the evolution of the planet inclination in a pure N-body problem star-planet-companion star.

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