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Fig. 5


Distance of the circumplanetary H2O ice lines as a function of planetary mass. A distance of 5.2 AU to a Sun-like star is assumed. The shaded area indicates the 1σ scatter of our simulations based on the posterior distribution of the disk Planck mean opacity (κP) and the shutdown accretion rate for moon formation (shut). The labeled circles at 1 MJup denote the orbital positions of Jupiter’s moons Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Orange indicates rocky composition, blue represents H2O-rich composition. Circle sizes scale with the moons’ radii. a) Disk reflectivity (ks) is set to 0.2. b) Same model parameterization but now with disk reflectivity ks = 0.4.

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