Distance of the circumplanetary H2O ice lines as a function of planetary mass. A distance of 5.2 AU to a Sun-like star is assumed. The shaded area indicates the 1σ scatter of our simulations based on the posterior distribution of the disk Planck mean opacity (κP) and the shutdown accretion rate for moon formation (Ṁshut). The labeled circles at 1 MJup denote the orbital positions of Jupiter’s moons Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Orange indicates rocky composition, blue represents H2O-rich composition. Circle sizes scale with the moons’ radii. a) Disk reflectivity (ks) is set to 0.2. b) Same model parameterization but now with disk reflectivity ks = 0.4.
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.