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Fig. 2


Temperature structure in the disk around a Jupiter-mass planet 5.2 AU from a Sun-like star. Solid black lines indicate disk midplane temperatures, solid gray lines disk surface temperatures. The other lines indicate a hypothetical disk surface temperature assuming only one heat source (see legend). a) At 0.992 Myr in this particular simulation, the disk has sufficiently cooled to allow the appearance of an H2O ice line in the disk midplane at the outer disk edge at 25.8 RJup. The planetary accretion rate is about 4 × 102MGan Myr-1. b) At 1.073 Myr, when the planetary accretion rate has dropped to 10 MGan Myr-1, the H2O ice line has settles between the orbits of Europa and Ganymede (see colored symbols). In these final stages of accretion, disk temperatures are governed by planetary illumination (see dashed line for Tp).

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