Torque acting on discs with Ṁ = 1 × 10-8 M⊙/yr for a rescaling of ΣGν by a factor of sf = 0.5 (top) and a factor of sf = 2 (bottom). This means that the disc displayed in top has a metallicity of 0.005, while the disc in bottom has a metallicity of 0.02. The black lines encircle the regions of outward migration. The vertical red lines indicate the ice line at 170 K.
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