Normalized global bandpass for several of the LOFAR bands. The global bandpass is defined as the total system gain converting measured voltage units to flux on the sky. These bandpass measurements were determined using short observations of the bright source 3C 196 and calculating the mean gain for all stations in each sub-band. The values have been corrected for the intrinsic spectrum of 3C 196 assuming a spectral index of − 0.70 (Scaife & Heald 2012). Curves are shown for (upper left) LBA from 10–90 MHz with 200 MHz clock sampling, (upper right) HBA low from 110–190 MHz with 200 MHz clock sampling, (lower left) HBA mid from 170–230 MHz with 160 MHz clock sampling, and (lower right) HBA high from 210–250 MHz with 200 MHz clock sampling.
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