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Fig. 1


Left: schematic configuration of the stellar spin axis and planetary orbital plane. The vector is the normal unit vector of the planetary orbital plane, the vector is the stellar spin axis, and i is the stellar inclination. We denote the angle between the projected stellar spin axis and the projected normal unit vector of the planetary orbital plane on the y-z plane with λ (not shown here). Right: schematic view of planetary orbit from above the orbital plane, the star is the gray circle and the planet is the black full circle. See Sect. 2 for more details on the symbols.

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